Monday, 17 December 2007

Winsor McCay

This is taken from part of a comic (Little Nemo in Slumberland) by Winsor McCay. The comic strips were very popular and were featured weekly in the New York Herald in the early 1900's.

Little Nemo in Slumberland is a big favourite of mine. McCays characters are so charming and the colour pallete he uses is eye catching to me because they're not really used in any other work in this day in age. The stories in the comics are so unusual and really do seem dream-like. They're not particularly nice stories-they were often quite violent, threatening, dark and surreal. I think that's why I like it so much. I like odd things that are quirky, dark and surreal, so Little Nemo in Slumberland does it for me.
It's easy to tell what's going on in the comics without the need of the words there. It's all sequential and very easy to follow. The fact that most of the images are closely sequential (almost like a stop motion animation) make it more interesting to me for some reason. The image above is a good example of this technique.

Koloman Moser

Koloman Moser was an Austrian artist who put alot of influence on twentieth-century graphic art and was one of the artists of the Vienna Secession movement. His designs in architecture, furniture, jewelry, graphics, and tapestries helped characterize the work of this era. Moser drew with the style of clean lines and repetitive motifs of classical Greek and Roman art and architecture.

Apparently this image to the right shows "the Judgement of Paris, a story from classical mythology. In the foreground stand three goddesses: Venus, Juno and Minerva. They are parading in front of Paris whose task it is to choose the most beautiful. The choice of subject matter can perhaps be seen as an artist's flattery of his patron, complimenting him on his good judgement and taste"

His work is great and I love the simplicity of the lines. Things aren't over complicated in his work which I like...his characters are made up of a simple language. The only major detail is in the clothing of the characters which is made up of pattern. I'm a big fan of detail, so to see it in such a manner with simplicity of lines is fresh and inspiring for me.

Arthur Rackham

Arthur Rackham produced elaborate illustrations for children's literature and fairy tales, and also for some adult books.
"to make my small elves coats" illustration above is from A Midsummer Night's Dream. It clearly shows what's going on...little elves making coats. He's used lots of clues to show this and to make it obvious for the viewer. I'm a fan of fairytale illustrations and Rackham is my favourite. His drawings have so much character and life to them, and it's always fun to try to figure out what's going on in each illustration. It makes your mind run wild. The colour palette he uses is unusual but lovely. The darkness of it gives an oddness and unusual feeling to the illustrations which I love. His use of line and detail is amazing...each illustration of his I've seen have been quite mysterious and eerie.

Cindy Sherman

Cindy Sherman is known mainly for taking photographs of herself in different costumes and works in series. Her series Untitled Film Stills are more well know and are all done in black and white. She places herself as an unnamed actress in shots reminiscent of foreign films, Hollywood pictures, B-Movies and Film Noir.

The props she uses in the photographs can tell us an awful lot about what she’s trying to tell us in the photograph, and what her character is like. I like the fact that the characters in her photographs are portrayed as being sexy and seductive, and then in others she's seen as being innocent and immature. This image to the left shows a woman lying on what seems to be a bed, with a book in front of her and looking up at something-I imagine that she's watching a TV. Her looking up makes the image quite seductive, and the way she's dressed is flirtatious. Her as a character is maybe an exaggerated stereotype of the actresses in the films at this period of time in the 1970's.
The way she dressed up as actresses etc is really clever in my opinion. She did it well and looked as if it came naturally to her. She knew exactly what she wanted to say in each photograph and to me, sucessfully did it.

Sunday, 4 November 2007

EDWARD HOPPER: Vertical and Lateral thinking

Edward Hopper was an American realist painter and print maker. He was well known for producing paintings of American scenes, expressing the loneliness, emptiness and depression of town life. He showed the world in his paintings as a chilling, alienating and empty place, and in his words "a place of sad desolation." The characters in his works look as if they have been captured just before or just after the climax of a scene. Hopper also used a narrative history in his works. He represented light as it's reflected off familiar objects. What he did was new to art, and was maybe an expression of the sense of hopelessness that characterized the Great Depression of the 1930's.

When Hopper studied painting and illustration at the New York Institute of Art and Design, he was taught by the artist Robert Henri who taught him to show realistic depictions of urban life, and encouraged his students to "make a stir in the world." Henri became a big influence on Hopper from then on.

Edward Hopper made many trips to Europe to study the current art there. Modern art was new at this time and was a new approach to art which placed emphasis on representing emotions, themes, and various abstractions. Artists experimented with new ways of seeing, with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art, often moving further toward abstraction. Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism and Futurism where other movements that were flourishing at this period of time. World War I brought about artist groups such as Bauhaus which was influential in the development of new ideas about the connection of the arts, architecture, design and art education. Although these movements were popular with many of his fellow artists at this time, including Abstract Expressionism, Hopper instead became influenced by the idealism and detail of the realist painters within the surrounding of American post-war culture. This influence is shown in his earlier works which have an emphasis on colour and shape. This painting to the right is an earlier work by Hopper called "The El Station" (1908)

It looks as if modern techniques are present in his works. The style of his painting Morning in the City (left) has a suggestion of Impressionism. The outlines of the buildings and their windows are too odd and bold to be realism. Also, the heavy gesture of the figure and the way the bedroom walls have been painted are purposely expressionistic. As a whole, the woman's room seems more affected by subtle abstraction than the world outside the window, which could be suggesting a hidden emotional imbalance within her world.

The modern techniques which are mentioned above are visible throughout his work. It shows that he has a knowledge of contemporary new methods and even a subtle technical skill. However, they are added features to subjective meaning and are not formal experiments in Impressionism or Expressionism. A sense of Expressionism surrounds each setting with a mood that seems to appear from the nature of his figures or objects, but the method stays focused around the narrative of a picture rather than the way Hopper has painted them.
Edward Hoppers paintings give a direct view of everyday experiences of modern life.

This well-known painting by Hopper, Automat (1927), shows a lonesome woman holding a cup of coffee in an empty cafe. It uses clear visual language that uses one of the most repeated themes found throughout modern art movements: solipsistic isolation. He has used an expressionistic abstraction and discoloration to build up the surroundings of loneliness and sort of ignores the fact that the person is suffering of some sort...the effect is emotional.

In 1941 was the attack on Pearl Harbour. Edward Hopper began to paint "Nighthawks", shown below, straight after it. After the event of Pearl Harbour, there was a feeling of unhappiness in the United States. Hopper included this feeling in the painting. It could also be believed that the Great Depression in the 1930's were expressed in Hoppers paintings too.

Nighthawks (1942) is one of Hoppers most famous paintings and one of the most recognisable in American art. It shows people sitting in a diner late at night. The scene was inspired by a diner in Greenwich Village, Hopper's home town in Manhattan. The street outside the diner is empty, and the people inside are not looking or even talking to each other. It's like they're lost in their own thoughts. Maybe Hopper was painting the emptiness of an urban city in this painting.

The common theme of Hoppers work, emptiness and loneliness in modern urban life, is obvious in this work. The man with his back to us appears more lonely because of the couple sitting next to him. If you look close at the painting, there is no way out of the bar area because the walls of the counter form a triangle which traps the attendant. The diner also has no door leading outside, which gives the idea of confinement and being trapped.

Hoppers influence is undeniable, and can be seen ranging from not only the art world (he influenced Pop Art and the new realists of the 1960's and 1970's), but also the pop culture and even into contemporary issues which is seen in tributes to Nighthawks using modern icons such as James Dean and Marilyn Monroe. The diner and the people from Nighthawkes were also recreated in Dario Argento's 1976 film 'Deep Red'.

One of the photorealists Hopper influenced was Ralph Goings, who used used Nighthawkes in several paintings of diners.

One of the Imagists, Roger Brown, included a view into a corner cafe in his painting Puerto Rican Wedding (1969), which was a stylized night time street scene. Brown said that it "isn't set up like an imitation of Nighthawks, but still refers to it very much."

Nighthawkes has also been used in television series such as The Simpson's, That 70's Show and Dead Like Me.

This is the scene from The Simpson's where Nighthawkes was used.

Hopper's painting House by the Railroad (shown left) could be said to have influenced the iconic house from Hitchcock's Psycho. Hoppers dramatic use of light and dark made him a favorite among filmmakers.

Finally, Edward Hoppers influence can also be seen in works by artists such as John Sloan's "Backyards, Greenwich Village" (shown right) and...

...William J. Glackens "Parade, Washington Square"(shown left).

Sunday, 25 February 2007


This is the logo for E4 (a digital TV channel), and can also be viewed as advertisement and a character. It's a simple design and is very bold, eye catching and resembles the number 4 with an E inside it! I think this idea is very effective.
This logo is used in many trailers for the channel, which are all animated and make the logo come you could say that the logo is a character itself. I thought that this is relevant to my project because of the way that the logo shown here has been adapted to a different situation and environment than what you'd expect (it's been placed outside on the grass rather than just being viewed on a screen with a plain background, etc). Because the logo is used in trailers and is animated, it means that it's interactive, can survive in different environments, can be normal, passive, active, extrovert, introvert, shown, hidden and can also be an opposite. These are all of the qualities I need to have in my idea, so this can be a real inspiration towards my ideas.

Here is a bad example of a logo:
It's a logo for a band called Rebus. I don't like the layout of the design because it's so bland, boring, and has no 'life' about it! The reason it's similar to my other example is because it's another example of a logo, however, this logo isn't put in different situations/environments, and isn't animated on occasion like the E4 logo is. The fact that the E4 logo can be 'played' with by animation etc, it makes that example far much better than this lifeless logo, and adds more excitement to it.


This is a banner for the band the Switches. It's very eye catching with the simple imagery and colour, and it advertises well the website that it's advertising. I feel that this is quite relevant to this current project because it's interactive, and has many qualities that I have to include in my work for this project, for example, it's passive, active, extrovert, and hidden in parts. I thought that this was very interesting to look at because it's digital, unlike everything else I've looked at, so it'll maybe inspire me in a different way than what I've been focusing on.

Saturday, 24 February 2007

INTERACTION: Advertising Poster

This is a poster for the Smashing Pumpkins single 'Melancholy'. The inspiration behind this poster, and the video for the single, was 'Voyage Dans la Lune' (the example I previously looked at).

I simply chose to look at this example because I love the style of it, and it would give me a more modern take on the previous example I looked at.

This style of imagery, and the layering technique, is a definite idea that I'm going to work with in my project. The target audience for this style (and also the example shown here) would be adults, or older children (teenagers?!) because of its dark, mysterious quality.

This example has a few of the qualities that I need to work with in my idea, for example, normal, passive, perhaps extrovert and introvert, etc!

INTERACTION: Silent film

This is a part of the silent film called 'Voyage Dans la Lune' (A Trip to the Moon) by Georges Melies in 1902.

The character shown here, and the layered background is very relevant to my idea I'm going to work with. It gives me a clearer idea of how the character and the background work together and are quite sympathetic towards one another. The layered technique will have to be used if I'm going to be producing a toy theatre.

I really love this silent film because it's strange, dark, atmospheric and simple, and these qualities would work well with my idea.

Because this is a film, it's obviously going to be able to have all of the qualities that I need to work with in my idea! For example, passive, extrovert, opposite, etc! This is therefore going to be a great help towards my idea

INTERACTION: Stop Motion Animation

This is a part of the stop motion film, The Adventures of Prince Achmed by Lotte Reiniger. It's very decorative and eye catching.

My reason for looking at this is because I'm thinking about producing a stop motion animation with the puppets I will make. The decoration of these puppets, and the background will influence my designs. The posture of these characters, and the film itself will give me a good idea of what stop motion animations look like, and how the movements created e.g. is it a smooth movement, a jagged, bouncy movement...etc.

This example, and also with any stop motion animations and puppets, they're very interactive, and include all of the qualities that I need to include with my idea.


This is a toy theatre for Penny Plain Twopence coloured by Pollock's. Toy Theatres were quite popular in the Victorian/Edwardian periods with children. The figures could be moved to any area as wished in the theatre set, which makes it very interactive.

I'm thinking of making a toy theatre for my final piece, so this is the reason why I've chosen this as an example to look at. The decoration is stunning and it's very detailed, and the colours are quite dark which I like alot. I'm very interested in the way that the theatre has been constructed so that there's imagery or a background in every side of the theatre that can be viewed from most angles. Obviously, the audience is children, but it can also be used by adults. This is what I'm going to do with my final idea too.

A toy theatre is very interactive, and can be normal, passive, active, extrovert and introvert, show, hide and opposite. This idea will therefore be a great help and inspiration towards my ideas.


This is from part of a comic strip called Little Nemo in Slumberland which was published in the New York Herald from 1905 and onwards. It was about a little boy's (Nemo) dreams which were often quite dark, surreal and threatening. The last panel in each strip would have Nemo falling out of his bed and being told off by his parents for crying out, or comforted by one of his grandparents.

I've chosen this as an example because for this project, I want to either make a toy theatre, or a puppet and do a stop motion animation with it. This comic strip has an essence of an animation to it which will help me with my final idea. I'm also very attracted by the style of the drawings in this comic strip. I'm highly into the style of drawings from the late Victorian and Edwardian periods, and I'd maybe like to include this style into my project. The characters in this comic would be a great influence with the ideas of my characters I will produce too. I like the fact that Little Nemo has a wide audience and is loved by both children and adults. I'd like to apply this factor with my idea. This factor, in my opinion, adds more appeal to the subject and idea. A comic is quite interactive, and can include the other qualities that I need in my idea. For example, this comic can be normal, passive, active, extrovert and introvert, show, hide and opposite.

Sunday, 11 February 2007

Paul Davis

This is the cover of the book 'Us and them: What the Americans think of the British, and what the British think of the Americans' by Paul Davis! There are two covers to this humorous book, one showing what the Americans think of us, and the other showing what us British think of the Americans. It's funny to look at this book and to find what the Americans think of us. Davis travelled the US and Britain with his notebook and pencil, and good observation to answer the questions he had, and to find what the two country's really thought about one another.

Davis's illustrations work well with the content of this book. They're quirky and have a good style to them. It reminded me of David Shringley's illustrations. These two front covers work well together and I find them appealing to look at! I like the way that all the text is hand written, and that the two images of the hats are being compared to one another. One being the Americans view of what hats the British wear (or maybe it's even making out that the Americans think we're quite posh with the symbol of the bowler hat), and vise versa. I'm really interested in the way that the illustrations have been coloured. It's quite messy but works really well and it gives a strong impact to the viewer. I haven't used this technique in my booklet as I've used a marker pen to colour in, and then I copied it all using a fax machine, so i got the effect of a lino print.
However, I was inspired by the fact that all the text in this book 'Us and Them' is all hand written. I used this idea all the way through my booklet. This is one example of that technique I used, in my booklet. The hand written text makes the booklet quite personal and in a way, makes the viewer have more respect over the booklet.

Edward Tufte

This is by Edward Tufte which is taken from his book 'Beautiful Evidence' 2006.

Martin Kemp, Nature, "The world's leading analyst of graphic information."

He's has been described by The New York Times as "the Leonardo da Vinci of Data", and he's an expert in the presentation of informational graphics such as charts and diagrams.

Edward Tufte has one main idea that he works with! This is to show as much data as possible with as little ornamentation as possible. To Tufte, information becomes art.

I myself can't understand how information can be art, and how somebody like Tufte can have so much passion with graphs and charts. The image above from his book are photos from a 1940s instruction book for skiing. It's meant to demonstrate one concept: Good design is timeless, while bad design can be a matter of life and death. I find this page above very bland, boring, and I really can't understand how it can be interesting to look at. I'm not a fan of Tuftes work at all, and that's why my booklet hasn't been inspired by his work. My booklet hasn't got graphs or charts in it to get my information across. I've simply just used illustrations and symbols to get my information across.

Wednesday, 7 February 2007

Futurist typography

This image to the left is Fortunato Depero's famous 1927 Depero Futurista (also known as The Nailed Book) book. The printed word was extremely important to the art movement Futurism. The movement's beginnings were based in poetry and literature produced in magazines, pamphlets and books.

Since the Futurist movement was born of the machine age, to the Futurists the design and production of a book was symbolic of that age. Modern materials and methods were employed. This book to the left is an example of this!

I've never really looked at futurist typography before, and now that I've looked at it, I find it incredibly interesting. The text is quite modern looking for the era that futurism was around (in the early 1900's). That's what I find so appealing about it. The text is very eye catching and very creative in the way that it's done e.g. some of the text I've found were done at angles, or even in circle shapes, some had multiple sizes within one word, and like the example above, they used two different colours.

The text in my booklet has been inspired by futurism! I've changed sizes of my text throughout some of the words that I was presenting, I've used the effect that's shown above with the two colours, and I've done some of my text so that it's flowing like a wave. I think by doing all of these futurist inspired typography in my booklet, it's added much more appeal to the viewer as there's more to it than just having plain, boring text that's presented in the usual manner of being on straight horizontal lines.

This is an example of one of my pages in my booklet which has been inspired by futurist typography. I've used the two coloured text effect like the example shown above, and I've played around with different sizes of the text and been quite experimental-the 'what a waste of time' in the black silhouttted wavy line.

Posy Simmonds

"...She does some ingenious things with storytelling and characterization. The pity of it is that the vast majority of people who like to think of themselves as comic fans... will never do themselves the favour of picking it up and getting a decent education in graphic narrative."Alan Moore, Infinity #8"

In 1969, she started her first daily cartoon feature called 'bear' which was printed in the Sun and also contributed to 'the times' and the 'cosmopolitan' magazine. She moved to 'The Guardian' newspaper in 1972 initially producing filler illustrations for a variety of articles.

This at the top right is part of a comic strip from Mr.Frost drawn by Posy Simmonds. I like this section of the strip because it has a slight humour about it in the story line. The colour has been used well and the layout isn't strict and isn't kept to the same size boxes like most other comic strips I've seen e.g. the snoopy comic strips.

My booklet contrasts with Posy Simmonds comic strip style because I haven't worked in the way she works! Her illustrations are more confined than mine. My illustrations are flowing freely, drifting from one page to the next in a narrative type of way, and my text is almost part of the illustrations itself, instead of having them sectioned off with speech bubbles, like in the image above.

Neville Brody

Neville Brody is a British designer, typographer and art director. He became largely known through his art direction for The Face magazine (shown left).
Brody has continually pushed the boundaries of visual communication in all media through his experimental and challenging work.
The layout of this magazine works well! The vertical title is quite different to what's expected on magazines these days, as nearly all magazines have a horizontal title. The text of the title is very 80's and is unusual to look at. It's simple, yet visually appealing.
My booklet doesn't really compare to this magazine design. Brody's designs and typography are very graphic, and perfect in a sense, whilst all of my booklet is hand drawn and quite playful looking and not very neat and perfect like this image shown.

David Carson

David Carson is an American graphic designer, and is best known for his innovative magazine design, and experimenting with typography. Carson was the art director for the magazine Ray Gun-shown to the right.

"His work does not follow "traditional" graphic design standards (as espoused by an older generation of practitioners such as the late Paul Rand). Carson has a part of himself in every piece and he is emotionally attached to his creations. Carson's work is considered an exploration in thoughts and ideas that become "lost" in his (and his target audience's) subconscious. Every piece is saturated with visual information that could easily be considered too heavy for the eye to interpret, but Carson still manages to communicate both the idea and the feeling behind his design" wikipedia

In a way, my booklet is produced the way that Carson would produce his work because he has a part of himself in his work, and with my booklet, I've done exactly that! I've tried to bring an essence of me into my booklet, and portrayed my feelings and emotions into it also.

Carson also plays around with typography! I've done this in my booklet also. I've created my text into my illustrations so that they become part of the illustration and not something that's just floating at the side of it, etc.

This is a page from my booklet which shows how I've made my text become part of the illustration! The shape of it, with the swirls and waves is presenting an essence of me, and is portraying my feelings when I heard the song that this page is about. This is quite like David Carson's work because he puts a part of himself into his work.

Edward Gorey

This is the front cover of the book called 'The Gashlycrumb Tinies' by Edward Gorey. It's about 26 children (who's names all start with a letter of the alphabet) and how they die. Not only is there imagery, but there is a rhyme describing how each child dies.

It's a very dark book, which attracts me alot! It's full of black, grey and white illustrations. I love the fact that the illustrations have a limited amount of colour. It keeps it simple and visually appealing. The colours compliment the theme and atmosphere of the book also! I've used this technique in my booklet. When I heard the music that I've documented in my diary, I was in a calm and relaxed mood. So, I have used a pale, calming green colour as the background on all of my pages.

The way that Gorey has placed the rhyme underneath the appropriate image is very different to how I presented my text in my booklet! I simply included my text in with my imagery. The text he's used with his imagery is sympathetic towards the subject, and suits the atmosphere well. I've done this with my text in my booklet too.
I've experimented with text to find the right style which would be appropriate to the message I was trying to get across with each song I heard, and to find a style that would be quite sympathetic. This is one example, shown here on the right. The text is sympathetic towards the song and illustration, and it all works quite well together!

Sunday, 4 February 2007

El Lissitzky

This is the front cover of El Lissitzky's book '2 Squares' which was a picture book created for children

Shown on this image is the Russian word 'PRO,' meaning 'About' or 'Concerning,' the Arabic numeral 2, and a red square. Seen below this title is the signature of El Lissitzky, which is printed at an angle. As you can see the first and last names are sharing the letter 'L.' I love the simplicity of this image because of the minimal amount of colours used, and the flat, bold colours. This has influenced some of my illustrations in my booklet because I'm using 2 colours-the black of the silhouettes, and the colour of the paper printed on-and a few of my illustrations are quite simple and calm looking, just like this image by El Lissitzky.

Lissitzky was very careful with his choice of colours. The intensity of the red square contrasts well with the black square and text. This below (taken from my booklet) has been inspired by this work. I've been careful with the colours used, and used a minimal amount. I've also worked with quite flat, bold colours, which is just like what Lissitzky does in his work also.

Lissitzky wrote at about this time (1922), "Today we have two dimensions for the word. As a sound it is a function of time, and as a representation it is a function of space. The coming book must be both." Since, he wrote, "the words on the printed page are learnt by sight, not by hearing," he chose number and image on the cover, and only used a word, "about," because he needed it to show his meaning.

The Designers Republic

The Designers Republic is a group of designers who are based in Sheffield. Its known for its anti-establishment and aesthetics. The Designers Republic have worked in ranges of media including CD covers, record covers, web design, typography, logo design, music videos, packaging, apparel design and corporate design.

This image to the right is part of the album artwork for a band 'your:codename:is:milo' which was designed by The Designers Republic. They've used a silhouette quality to the artwork, which looks very attractive and eye catching! It stands out alot and has alot of impact and energy to it, which I'm inspired by alot.
My booklet has been influenced by this style all the way though. I've worked purely with black silhouettes to give a strong impression to my viewers, and I tired to work with the idea of movement and energy by using a sequencing and narrative flow with my illustrations. This is the front cover of my booklet, and the silhouetted wave flows onto the next page like a sequence.

Chris Ware

This image is from Chris Ware's 'Jimmy Corrigan The Smartest Kid On Earth' book. The book is filled with symbolism and storytelling through visual means, exploring and showing the potential of the comics medium. Quite alot of pages are free from text, and some contain complicated looking iconic diagrams. In this book, notable leitmotifs in 'Jimmy Corrigan' include the robot, the peach, the miniature horse and the flawed Superman figure.

From looking at this image, I can tell that Chris Ware is another designer (like Saul Bass) who works with flat colour. It brings appeal to the drawings, in my view. I like the way that his text is involved within his drawings, instead of it being placed on the outside of the image, or something similar to that.
Within my booklet I've included my text within my illustrations, and made them work together. It's a very interesting process to work with and I find it works extremely well and adds more attraction to the work. This is one example of that process that I used! The text is floating down the page just like the leaves. It's like the letters are leaves themselves.

Saul Bass

Saul Bass is known as one of the greatest graphic designers of the mid-20th century. Bass was also a master of film title design thanks to his collaborations with Alfred Hitchcock, Martin Scorsese and Otto Preminger.

This image to the right is part of the title sequence from 1958's 'Vertigo' by Saul Bass, which was his first title sequence for Alfred Hitchcock. Bass shot a close-up of a woman's face and then her eye before spinning it into a sinister spiral as a blood red soaks the screen.

This black figure in the image is quite sinister looking, which matches the essence of the sinister spiral. There's a sense of violence and death, which is portrayed by the blood red and the position of the two figures; the woman looks as if she's struggling and being attacked.

The text he's created is very sympathetic towards the illustrations. It matches the style that the figures have been drawn-in a stiff, striking way.

Bass's works is very bold, flat and eye catching, as proven in this image above. With my booklet illustrations, I've gone with a similar approach. I've concentrated on using black silhouettes which are flat with no shadow or tone, and I've worked with a sequence/narrative, just like in Bass's work! This is an example below. The page on the left shows alot of 'Z's' which represent bed time, or sleeping, and when you turn over the page it comes to the page which is shown below this. The shape of it represents a sun or sunrise, and it's showing that I was woken up by my alarm by the song written in the sun rays.